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The above categories were multiply coded. For example, statements by mothers such as An elephant is washing his body were coded as providing information about agents and actions, and utterances such as What is the lion doing?

Utterances in which children provided information about agents and actions were coded using the same criteria as those used for mothers.

Information requests issued by children were not differentiated according to whether their focus was on agents or on actions.

In terms of information about agents, maternal initiation by information giving was coded when mothers initiated a conversation about agents with information giving preceding information seeking e.

Maternal initiation by information seeking was coded when mothers initiated a conversation about agents with information seeking preceding information giving e.

We coded data on the initiation of conversations about actions in the same way as we coded data on the initiation of conversations about agents.

Recent studies have shown that different styles of elaboration should be differentiated from one another Fivush et al.

Both types can be viewed as ways to raise the ante as they introduce more complex information into conversations. However, requesting elaborative information provides less scaffolding than does offering elaborative information because the former involves questions rather than the provision of concrete information.

Elaborative information giving was defined as the provision of information that had not been produced by the children during the episode in question.

Two coders independently coded all utterances. The kappa values representing the reliability of maternal information giving about agents and actions and maternal requests for information about agents and actions were 0.

Final coding was determined by discussions between the two coders. The first criterion was the number of different word types produced by the children during a 7-min book-reading session and two 7-min play sessions.

The second criterion was the number of different word types reported by mothers on the questionnaires. The mean numbers of pictures referenced by mothers and children and the mean numbers of utterances by mothers and children per picture are presented in Table 1.

TABLE 1. Mean numbers of pictures referenced and mean number of utterances per picture SDs in parentheses. Both mothers and children increased the number of utterances per picture as children developed from 20 to 27 months.

We also treated the productive vocabulary size reported by mothers at 20 months as a covariate. When the second analysis produced essentially the same results as the first, we do not report the second analysis.

When the second analysis produced results that differed from the first, we report the second results after the first.

Comparisons were calculated by dividing the number of pictures in response to which mothers and children initiated a conversation about agents actions in each of these ways by the total number of pictures in response to which mothers and children referred to agents actions.

Table 2 presents the mean proportions of the three styles of initiating conversations about agents and actions. As the children grew older, the mothers initiated a smaller proportion of the conversations by providing information, and the children initiated a larger proportion of the conversations.

Mothers initiated a smaller proportion of conversations about actions by information giving and initiated a larger proportion by information seeking as their children aged from 20 to 27 months.

When we used the productive vocabulary size reported by mothers at 20 months as a covariate, the results of the ANCOVAs showed that the proportion of child-initiated utterances about agents did not significantly change as a function of their age.

We selected only the first information-giving utterance about agents for each picture because the conversational sequence leading to later information-giving utterances made by the children was probably affected by the first such utterance regarding the picture.

Data from only those mother—child pairs in which the child produced information about agents at both 20 and 27 months of age were included in this analysis.

Fourteen pairs met this criterion The mean number of episodes analyzed at 20 and 27 months were 6. Murase et al.

Only those pairs in which the child offered information about actions at both 20 and 27 months of age were included in this analysis.

Data from 10 pairs were used in this analysis The mean numbers of episodes analyzed at 20 and 27 months were 1.

We categorized the range of references provided by mothers in response to each picture into four types: references to both agents and actions, references to agents only, references to actions only, and references to neither agents nor actions.

We categorized the series of utterances in response to pictures as references to agents and actions when mothers provided at least one piece of information about both agents and actions.

We categorized responses as references to agents only when mothers offered information about agents but not about actions, even if other information, such as arguments, was provided.

We categorized responses as references to actions only when mothers offered information about actions but not about agents, even if other information was provided.

We categorized responses as references to neither agents nor actions when mothers did not provide information about agents or actions. Mothers changed their referential style from information giving to information seeking as their children got older.

Moreover, mothers transferred the role of information giving to their children as the children grew older.

We included information giving by mothers, information seeking by mothers, and information giving by children in our analyses of the referential style with which mothers and children responded to each picture.

These results show mothers decreased actions-only references and increased agents-and-actions references as their children got older, although the results for agents-and-actions references are not robust.

The results show that mothers did not significantly change the proportion of agents-only references.

These associations are presented in Table 3. TABLE 3. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis are presented in Table 4. No other maternal conversational style when children were 20 months of age was a significant predictor when entered in the second step.

TABLE 4. First, mothers broadened the range of their references by reducing the proportion of references to actions only and increasing the proportion to both agents and actions as their children aged.

Second, mothers increased the proportion of conversations about actions that they initiated with information-seeking utterances as the age of their children increased.

These results indicate that mothers introduce more complex information into their conversations with their children and transfer the role of actively producing information during conversations to their children as their children develop.

We discuss the individual maternal conversational styles in greater detail in the following sections. In terms of conversations about actions, mothers reduced initiation by information giving and increased initiation by information seeking from 20 to 27 months, as proposed by Hypothesis 1.

Contrary to Hypothesis 1, mothers did not initiate a significantly larger proportion of conversations about agents by information seeking, although they did initiate a smaller proportion of such conversations by information giving during this interval.

The absence of an increase in the proportion of conversations about agents initiated by information seeking can be explained by the age range of the children in this study.

The mothers of month-old children included in the present study reached the level at which they frequently initiated conversations about agents with information-seeking utterances.

Why do mothers frequently initiate conversations about agents by information seeking when their children are 20 months of age?

The first reason for this is the earlier acquisition of words about agents than about actions. Children produce utterances about agents more frequently than about actions starting at 20 months of age.

Another reason for this finding is the order of conversations. In general, conversations about agents precede those about actions. At the beginning of such conversations, mothers are likely to use rhetorical questions that take the form of information-seeking utterances in the absence of an expectation of a reply from the addressee DeLoache and DeMendoza, This shift occurs first in conversations about agents and next in conversations about actions.

It represents an increase in the degrees of freedom in the scaffolding process that are controlled by children Wood et al.

This result is consistent with previous research Murase et al. In general, previously established referents are more likely to be expressed in non-lexical null or pronominal forms than are newly introduced referents Guerriero et al.

The results show that mothers reduced these types of scaffolding i. Elaborative information seeking can be viewed as providing less scaffolding and raising the ante because it adds new information to that provided by children and it asks children to produce information.

One reason that no such change was found could be the small number of information-giving utterances about actions produced by children.

In response to many of the pictures, mothers and children started conversations by referring to the agents, and their references to actions came later.

Mothers broadened the range of their references as their children developed from 20 to 27 months. When we considered the shift from providing to requesting information and the passing of the role of providing information from mother to child, we added information-seeking utterances by mothers and information-giving utterances by children to the category.

We found that the proportion of references to agents and actions tended to increase as the children developed from 20 to 27 months, although this result was not robust.

This can be explained by the dominance of agentic references in this situation. When their children are 20 months of age, mothers refer to things that can interest or be comprehended or produced by their children irrespective of whether the referents are agents or actions.

When children reach 27 months of age, mothers focus on agentic references, on the one hand, while broadening the range of references, on the other.

In summary, mothers tend to broaden the range of references as their children grow older, which can be viewed as raising the ante because mothers appear to introduce more complex conversations to their children.

This can also be viewed as reducing the degree of scaffolding because mothers tend to encourage their older children to be in control of a wider range of information.

However, mothers also shift their focus toward agentic references as their children develop, and the decrease in references to agents only may in part reflect this shift.

Maternal elaborative information-seeking utterances have three important characteristics. First, they extend the scope of conversations in that mothers use them to add new information.

Second, maternal elaborative information-seeking utterances act as requests for children to take an active role in the conversation by providing information.

The conclusions drawn from this study and their generalizability are limited by some aspects of the design.

Although the 7-min observation period was substantial, only a modest number of information-giving utterances were provided by some children.

Additionally, we did not analyze information about arguments because too few relevant utterances were made. Additional research is needed to confirm these results.

Conversations during reading other types of books e. It would also be interesting to examine conversations that occur while mothers and children are viewing animated scenes.

Indeed, unlike the static scenes used in this study, animated scenes may elicit more utterances about actions from mothers and children during joint watching.

Furthermore, conversations during joint picture-book reading are more focused on labeling than are conversations in other situations, such as playing with toys.

It would be important to investigate whether mothers modify their utterances in other situations in a way that is similar to the patterns observed in the present study.

Japanese is a pro-drop language, and we need to investigate whether our findings about referential choice can be generalized to the speakers of other languages.

For example, in English, the agents, actions, objects, and recipients are all explicitly mentioned. Another interesting topic for future study would be cross-cultural comparisons between East Asian and North American caregivers.

Although information about differences in the attentional styles of East Asians and North Americans has been increasing Masuda and Nisbett, ; Masuda et al.

Thus, the comparisons of the referential choices made by Japanese and American caregivers need to be investigated from a cross-cultural perspective.

This study determined that Japanese mothers decrease scaffolding and raise the ante by changing the balance between providing and requesting information and by broadening their range of references.

The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

We thank So Usui for his valuable assistance in conducting this research and preparing this paper. Arnold, D.

Dickinson Malden, MA: Blackwell , — Bates, E. Developmental and stylistic variation in the composition of early vocabulary. Child Lang.

Bornstein, M. Sources of child vocabulary competence: a multivariate model. Functional analysis of the contents of maternal speech to infants of 5 and 13 months in four cultures: Argentina, France, Japan, and the United States.

CrossRef Full Text. Bruner, J. Intention in the structure of action and interaction. Infancy Res. Chan, C. Culture, context, or behavioral control?

Cross Cult. Choi, S. Caregiver input in English and Korean: use of nouns and verbs in book-reading and toy-play contexts.

Early acquisition of verbs in Korean: a cross-linguistic study. DeLoache, J. Joint picturebook interactions of mothers and 1-year-old children.

Demetras, M. Post, K. Feedback to first language learners: the role of repetitions and clarification questions. Fernald, A. Child Dev. Fivush, R.

Elaborating on elaborations: role of maternal reminiscing style in cognitive and socioemotional development.

Fletcher, K. Picture book reading with young children: a conceptual framework. Guerriero, A. The development of referential choice in English and Japanese: a discourse-pragmatic perspective.

Hoff, E. How children use input to acquire a lexicon. Hoff-Ginsberg, E. Mother—child conversation in different social classes and communicative settings.

Huang, C. And previously on the showy she said that 95 per cent of online porn was violent towards women - Channel 4 producer Emma Morgan clarified that 88 of the most-seen videos portray violence - and also shows 'toxic masculinity'.

Producer Emma Morgan explained: 'I think it's like 50 per cent of all kids between 11 and 16 will probably have viewed explicit online sexual content, and that felt like an important sea-change in behaviour.

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Japanese mothers frustration

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