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According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens.

The documents also revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones' metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through " boomerang routing ".

The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, , three weeks after the U. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I.

A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section which was also known as the Cipher Bureau.

During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times. On July 5, , Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit.

At that point, the unit consisted of Yardley and two civilian clerks. It absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July After the disbandment of the U.

Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in , the U. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization.

Its true mission, however, was to break the communications chiefly diplomatic of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference , during which it aided American negotiators considerably by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.

Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in by U. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson , who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail".

Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Truman ordered a panel to investigate how AFSA had failed to achieve its goals.

The results of the investigation led to improvements and its redesignation as the National Security Agency. On the same day, Truman issued a second memorandum that called for the establishment of the NSA.

Due to its ultra-secrecy the U. In the s, the NSA played a key role in expanding U. The NSA mounted a major effort to secure tactical communications among U.

However a variety of technical and operational problems limited their use, allowing the North Vietnamese to exploit and intercept U.

Benjamin Spock. Kennedy to assassinate Fidel Castro. This was designed to limit the practice of mass surveillance in the United States. In , the NSA intercepted the communications of the Libyan government during the immediate aftermath of the Berlin discotheque bombing.

NSA's infrastructure deteriorated in the s as defense budget cuts resulted in maintenance deferrals. On January 24, , NSA headquarters suffered a total network outage for three days caused by an overloaded network.

Incoming traffic was successfully stored on agency servers, but it could not be directed and processed.

Director Michael Hayden called the outage a "wake-up call" for the need to invest in the agency's infrastructure. Solinas' presentation on efficient Elliptic Curve Cryptography algorithms at Crypto After the terrorist attacks of September 11, , the NSA believed that it had public support for a dramatic expansion of its surveillance activities.

In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks , the NSA created new IT systems to deal with the flood of information from new technologies like the Internet and cellphones.

ThinThread contained advanced data mining capabilities. It also had a "privacy mechanism"; surveillance was stored encrypted; decryption required a warrant.

The research done under this program may have contributed to the technology used in later systems. Some NSA whistleblowers complained internally about major problems surrounding Trailblazer.

The project was cancelled in early Turbulence started in It was developed in small, inexpensive "test" pieces, rather than one grand plan like Trailblazer.

It also included offensive cyber-warfare capabilities, like injecting malware into remote computers. Congress criticized Turbulence in for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer.

The massive extent of the NSA's spying, both foreign and domestic, was revealed to the public in a series of detailed disclosures of internal NSA documents beginning in June The court also added that the US intelligence leaders, who publicly defended it, were not telling the truth.

NSA's eavesdropping mission includes radio broadcasting, both from various organizations and individuals, the Internet, telephone calls, and other intercepted forms of communication.

Its secure communications mission includes military, diplomatic, and all other sensitive, confidential or secret government communications.

According to a article in The Washington Post , "[e]very day, collection systems at the National Security Agency intercept and store 1. The NSA sorts a fraction of those into 70 separate databases.

Its capabilities were suspected to include the ability to monitor a large proportion of the world's transmitted civilian telephone, fax and data traffic.

During the early s, the first of what became more than eight large satellite communications dishes were installed at Menwith Hill.

Alleged Echelon-related activities, including its use for motives other than national security, including political and industrial espionage , received criticism from countries outside the UKUSA alliance.

Those targeted had not committed any apparent crime nor were they charged with one. In order to support its facial recognition program, the NSA is intercepting "millions of images per day".

The Real Time Regional Gateway is a data collection program introduced in in Iraq by NSA during the Iraq War that consisted of gathering all electronic communication, storing it, then searching and otherwise analyzing it.

It was effective in providing information about Iraqi insurgents who had eluded less comprehensive techniques. Alexander , is believed by Glenn Greenwald of The Guardian to be the model for the comprehensive worldwide mass archiving of communications which NSA is engaged in as of Initially, it was reported that some of these data reflected eavesdropping on citizens in countries like Germany, Spain and France, [76] but later on, it became clear that those data were collected by European agencies during military missions abroad and were subsequently shared with NSA.

XKeyscore rules as specified in a file xkeyscorerules When my oldest son was asked the same question: "Has he been approached by the NSA about backdoors?

Then he was sort of in the legal free. He had given the right answer, everybody understood that the NSA had approached him. IBM Notes was the first widely adopted software product to use public key cryptography for client—server and server—server authentication and for encryption of data.

Until US laws regulating encryption were changed in , IBM and Lotus were prohibited from exporting versions of Notes that supported symmetric encryption keys that were longer than 40 bits.

In , Lotus negotiated an agreement with the NSA that allowed export of a version that supported stronger keys with 64 bits, but 24 of the bits were encrypted with a special key and included in the message to provide a "workload reduction factor" for the NSA.

This strengthened the protection for users of Notes outside the US against private-sector industrial espionage , but not against spying by the US government.

While it is assumed that foreign transmissions terminating in the U. They intercept routers , servers and other network hardware being shipped to organizations targeted for surveillance and install covert implant firmware onto them before they are delivered.

This was described by an NSA manager as "some of the most productive operations in TAO because they preposition access points into hard target networks around the world.

Computers seized by the NSA due to interdiction are often modified with a physical device known as Cottonmouth. NSA's mission, as set forth in Executive Order in , is to collect information that constitutes "foreign intelligence or counterintelligence" while not "acquiring information concerning the domestic activities of United States persons ".

NSA has declared that it relies on the FBI to collect information on foreign intelligence activities within the borders of the United States, while confining its own activities within the United States to the embassies and missions of foreign nations.

NSA's domestic surveillance activities are limited by the requirements imposed by the Fourth Amendment to the U. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court for example held in October , citing multiple Supreme Court precedents, that the Fourth Amendment prohibitions against unreasonable searches and seizures applies to the contents of all communications, whatever the means, because "a person's private communications are akin to personal papers.

George W. Title 1 , 2 , and 9 specifically authorized measures that would be taken by the NSA. These titles granted enhanced domestic security against terrorism, surveillance procedures, and improved intelligence, respectively.

They threatened to resign over the matter, but ultimately the NSA's programs continued. This allowed the president to be able to override laws such as the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act , which protected civilians from mass surveillance.

In addition to this, President Bush also signed that the measures of mass surveillance were also retroactively in place. Data gathered include email, video and voice chat, videos, photos, VoIP chats such as Skype, and file transfers.

Besides the more traditional ways of eavesdropping in order to collect signals intelligence, NSA is also engaged in hacking computers, smartphones and their networks.

These operations are conducted by the Tailored Access Operations TAO division, which has been active since at least circa According to the Foreign Policy magazine, " In an interview with Wired magazine, Edward Snowden said the Tailored Access Operations division accidentally caused Syria 's internet blackout in Each of these directorates consisted of several groups or elements, designated by a letter.

These groups were divided in units designated by an additional number, like unit A5 for breaking Soviet codes, and G6, being the office for the Middle East, North Africa, Cuba, Central and South America.

As of [update] , NSA has about a dozen directorates, which are designated by a letter, although not all of them are publicly known. The directorates are divided in divisions and units starting with the letter of the parent directorate, followed by a number for the division, the sub-unit or a sub-sub-unit.

The main elements of the organizational structure of the NSA are: []. The chiefs of other main NSA divisions became associate directors of the senior leadership team.

After president George W. Both units were part of the Signals Intelligence Directorate. NSANet is a highly secured computer network consisting of fiber-optic and satellite communication channels which are almost completely separated from the public Internet.

The network allows NSA personnel and civilian and military intelligence analysts anywhere in the world to have access to the agency's systems and databases.

This access is tightly controlled and monitored. For example, every keystroke is logged, activities are audited at random and downloading and printing of documents from NSANet are recorded.

As a system administrator, Snowden was responsible for moving accidentally misplaced highly sensitive documents to safer storage locations. The number of NSA employees is officially classified [4] but there are several sources providing estimates.

In , NSA had 59, military and civilian employees, which grew to 93, in , of which 19, worked at the headquarters at Fort Meade.

In the early s NSA had roughly 50, military and civilian personnel. By this number had grown again to 75,, of which 25, worked at the NSA headquarters.

Between and the NSA's budget and workforce were cut by one third, which led to a substantial loss of experience. Inglis , the deputy director, said that the total number of NSA employees is "somewhere between 37, and one billion" as a joke, [4] and stated that the agency is "probably the biggest employer of introverts.

As of about 1, system administrators work for the NSA. Investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee and a special subcommittee of the United States House Committee on Armed Services revealed severe cases of ignorance in personnel security regulations, prompting the former personnel director and the director of security to step down and leading to the adoption of stricter security practices.

The very same day, an NSA clerk-messenger committed suicide as ongoing investigations disclosed that he had sold secret information to the Soviets on a regular basis.

The reluctance of Congressional houses to look into these affairs had prompted a journalist to write, "If a similar series of tragic blunders occurred in any ordinary agency of Government an aroused public would insist that those responsible be officially censured, demoted, or fired.

Edward Snowden 's leaking of the existence of PRISM in caused the NSA to institute a " two-man rule ", where two system administrators are required to be present when one accesses certain sensitive information.

The NSA conducts polygraph tests of employees. For new employees, the tests are meant to discover enemy spies who are applying to the NSA and to uncover any information that could make an applicant pliant to coercion.

In addition the NSA conducts periodic polygraph investigations in order to find spies and leakers; those who refuse to take them may receive "termination of employment", according to a memorandum from the director of NSA.

There are also "special access examination" polygraphs for employees who wish to work in highly sensitive areas, and those polygraphs cover counterintelligence questions and some questions about behavior.

Between and , of the 20, job applicants who took polygraph tests, 3. In the NSA produced a video explaining its polygraph process.

Jeff Stein of The Washington Post said that the video portrays "various applicants, or actors playing them—it's not clear—describing everything bad they had heard about the test, the implication being that none of it is true.

After Edward Snowden revealed his identity in , the NSA began requiring polygraphing of employees once per quarter.

The number of exemptions from legal requirements has been criticized. When in the Congress was hearing a bill giving the director of the NSA the power to fire at will any employee, The Washington Post wrote: "This is the very definition of arbitrariness.

It means that an employee could be discharged and disgraced on the basis of anonymous allegations without the slightest opportunity to defend himself.

When the agency was first established, its headquarters and cryptographic center were in the Naval Security Station in Washington, D.

Army 's cryptographic operations. Construction of additional buildings began after the agency occupied buildings at Fort Meade in the late s, which they soon outgrew.

NSA workers referred to the building as the "Headquarters Building" and since the NSA management occupied the top floor, workers used "Ninth Floor" to refer to their leaders.

Meade , Maryland , although it is separate from other compounds and agencies that are based within this same military installation.

The Eastbound exit from the Parkway heading toward Baltimore is open to the public and provides employee access to its main campus and public access to the National Cryptology Museum.

NSA is the largest employer in the state of Maryland, and two-thirds of its personnel work at Fort Meade. The main NSA headquarters and operations building is what James Bamford , author of Body of Secrets , describes as "a modern boxy structure" that appears similar to "any stylish office building.

Capitol "could easily fit inside it four times over. The facility has over watchposts, [] one of them being the visitor control center, a two-story area that serves as the entrance.

The OPS2A building, the tallest building in the NSA complex and the location of much of the agency's operations directorate, is accessible from the visitor center.

Bamford described it as a "dark glass Rubik's Cube ". The name refers to the "red badge" which is worn by someone without a security clearance. The NSA headquarters includes a cafeteria, a credit union, ticket counters for airlines and entertainment, a barbershop, and a bank.

The employees at the NSA headquarters reside in various places in the Baltimore-Washington area , including Annapolis , Baltimore, and Columbia in Maryland and the District of Columbia, including the Georgetown community.

Following a major power outage in , in and in follow-ups through , The Baltimore Sun reported that the NSA was at risk of electrical overload because of insufficient internal electrical infrastructure at Fort Meade to support the amount of equipment being installed.

This problem was apparently recognized in the s but not made a priority, and "now the agency's ability to keep its operations going is threatened.

BGE provided NSA with 65 to 75 megawatts at Fort Meade in , and expected that an increase of 10 to 15 megawatts would be needed later that year.

NCSC was responsible for computer security throughout the federal government. As of , NSA collected intelligence from four geostationary satellites.

NSA had installations in several U. In , to protect its assets and access more electricity, NSA sought to decentralize and expand its existing facilities in Fort Meade and Menwith Hill, [] the latter expansion expected to be completed by The Yakima Herald-Republic cited Bamford, saying that many of NSA's bases for its Echelon program were a legacy system , using outdated, s technology.

A NSA report indicates that the ECC is responsible for the "largest analysis and productivity in Europe" and focuses on various priorities, including Africa, Europe, the Middle East and counterterrorism operations.

Thailand is a "3rd party partner" of the NSA along with nine other nations. It presumably eavesdrops on foreign embassies, governmental communications, and other targets of opportunity.

Its mission was to eavesdrop on the radio traffic of Chinese army and air force units in southern China, especially in and around the city of Kunming in Yunnan Province.

Back in the late s the base consisted only of a small CDAA antenna array that was remote-controlled via satellite from the NSA listening post at Kunia, Hawaii , and a small force of civilian contractors from Bendix Field Engineering Corp.

The base apparently fell into disrepair in the s as China and Vietnam became more friendly towards the US, and by archived satellite imagery showed that the PUSHER CDAA antenna had been torn down, perhaps indicating that the base had been closed.

It is likely that the NSA presence at Khon Kaen is relatively small, and that most of the work is done by civilian contractors. NSA has been involved in debates about public policy, both indirectly as a behind-the-scenes adviser to other departments, and directly during and after Vice Admiral Bobby Ray Inman 's directorship.

NSA was a major player in the debates of the s regarding the export of cryptography in the United States. Restrictions on export were reduced but not eliminated in Its secure government communications work has involved the NSA in numerous technology areas, including the design of specialized communications hardware and software, production of dedicated semiconductors at the Ft.

Meade chip fabrication plant , and advanced cryptography research. For 50 years, NSA designed and built most of its computer equipment in-house, but from the s until about when the U.

Congress curtailed the practice , the agency contracted with the private sector in the fields of research and equipment. NSA was embroiled in some minor controversy concerning its involvement in the creation of the Data Encryption Standard DES , a standard and public block cipher algorithm used by the U.

There was suspicion that these changes had weakened the algorithm sufficiently to enable the agency to eavesdrop if required, including speculation that a critical component—the so-called S-boxes —had been altered to insert a " backdoor " and that the reduction in key length might have made it feasible for NSA to discover DES keys using massive computing power.

It has since been observed that the S-boxes in DES are particularly resilient against differential cryptanalysis , a technique which was not publicly discovered until the late s but known to the IBM DES team.

This small modification was suggested by NSA two years later, with no justification other than the fact that it provides additional security.

An attack for SHA-0 that does not apply to the revised algorithm was indeed found between and by academic cryptographers. Because of weaknesses and key length restrictions in SHA-1, NIST deprecates its use for digital signatures , and approves only the newer SHA-2 algorithms for such applications from on.

A new hash standard, SHA-3 , has recently been selected through the competition concluded October 2, with the selection of Keccak as the algorithm.

The process to select SHA-3 was similar to the one held in choosing the AES, but some doubts have been cast over it, [] [] since fundamental modifications have been made to Keccak in order to turn it into a standard.

National Institute of Standards and Technology 's guidelines. This led to speculation of a backdoor which would allow NSA access to data encrypted by systems using that pseudorandom number generator PRNG.

This is now deemed to be plausible based on the fact that output of next iterations of PRNG can provably be determined if relation between two internal Elliptic Curve points is known.

Because of concerns that widespread use of strong cryptography would hamper government use of wiretaps , NSA proposed the concept of key escrow in and introduced the Clipper chip that would offer stronger protection than DES but would allow access to encrypted data by authorized law enforcement officials.

NSA has the ability to file for a patent from the U. Patent and Trademark Office under gag order. Unlike normal patents, these are not revealed to the public and do not expire.

However, if the Patent Office receives an application for an identical patent from a third party, they will reveal NSA's patent and officially grant it to NSA for the full term on that date.

One of NSA's published patents describes a method of geographically locating an individual computer site in an Internet-like network, based on the latency of multiple network connections.

The heraldic insignia of NSA consists of an eagle inside a circle, grasping a key in its talons. Carter USA ordered the creation of a device to represent the agency.

Crews associated with NSA missions have been involved in a number of dangerous and deadly situations. A tradition of declassifying the stories of the fallen was begun in In the United States, at least since , [] there has been legal controversy over what signal intelligence can be used for and how much freedom the National Security Agency has to use signal intelligence.

The government was not analyzing the phone records as of early Bush , the National Security Agency, in an attempt to thwart terrorism, had been tapping phone calls made to persons outside the country, without obtaining warrants from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court , a secret court created for that purpose under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA.

One such surveillance program, authorized by the U. Army th Military Intelligence Brigade. NSA relayed telephone including cell phone conversations obtained from ground, airborne, and satellite monitoring stations to various U.

Conversations of citizens of the U. Proponents of the surveillance program claim that the President has executive authority to order such action, arguing that laws such as FISA are overridden by the President's Constitutional powers.

Rumsfeld deprecates this view. NSA , U. Bush , against the George W. Bush Presidency. In that case the agency has to ask the telecom companies for the record, which will only be kept for six months.

NSA was reported in to use its computing capability to analyze "transactional" data that it regularly acquires from other government agencies, which gather it under their own jurisdictional authorities.

As part of this effort, NSA now monitors huge volumes of records of domestic email data, web addresses from Internet searches, bank transfers, credit-card transactions, travel records, and telephone data, according to current and former intelligence officials interviewed by The Wall Street Journal.

The sender, recipient, and subject line of emails can be included, but the content of the messages or of phone calls are not.

A advisory group for the Obama administration, seeking to reform NSA spying programs following the revelations of documents released by Edward J. Clarke was a group member and stated on April 11, that NSA had no advance knowledge of Heartbleed.

Law enforcement agents were directed to conceal how the investigations began and recreate an apparently legal investigative trail by re-obtaining the same evidence by other means.

The Justice Department then took action to correct the issues and bring the program into compliance with existing laws. Polls conducted in June found divided results among Americans regarding NSA's secret data collection.

On April 25, , the NSA obtained a court order requiring Verizon 's Business Network Services to provide metadata on all calls in its system to the NSA "on an ongoing daily basis" for a three-month period, as reported by The Guardian on June 6, This information includes "the numbers of both parties on a call The order relies on the so-called "business records" provision of the Patriot Act.

In August , following the Snowden leaks, new details about the NSA's data mining activity were revealed. Reportedly, the majority of emails into or out of the United States are captured at "selected communications links" and automatically analyzed for keywords or other "selectors".

Emails that do not match are deleted. The utility of such a massive metadata collection in preventing terrorist attacks is disputed. Many studies reveal the dragnet like system to be ineffective.

One such report, released by the New America Foundation concluded that after an analysis of terrorism cases, the NSA "had no discernible impact on preventing acts of terrorism.

Defenders of the program said that while metadata alone cannot provide all the information necessary to prevent an attack, it assures the ability to "connect the dots" [] between suspect foreign numbers and domestic numbers with a speed only the NSA's software is capable of.

One benefit of this is quickly being able to determine the difference between suspicious activity and real threats.

Alexander mentioned at the annual Cybersecurity Summit in , that metadata analysis of domestic phone call records after the Boston Marathon bombing helped determine that rumors of a follow-up attack in New York were baseless.

In addition to doubts about its effectiveness, many people argue that the collection of metadata is an unconstitutional invasion of privacy.

As of [update] , the collection process remains legal and grounded in the ruling from Smith v. Maryland A prominent opponent of the data collection and its legality is U.

District Judge Richard J. Leon , who issued a report in [] in which he stated: "I cannot imagine a more 'indiscriminate' and 'arbitrary invasion' than this systematic and high tech collection and retention of personal data on virtually every single citizen for purposes of querying and analyzing it without prior judicial approval Surely, such a program infringes on 'that degree of privacy' that the founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment".

This ruling "is the first time a higher-level court in the regular judicial system has reviewed the N. Under the Upstream collection program, the NSA paid telecommunications companies hundreds of millions of dollars in order to collect data from them.

In a declassified document it was revealed that 17, phone lines were on an improperly permitted "alert list" from to in breach of compliance, which tagged these phone lines for daily monitoring.

The NSA tracks the locations of hundreds of millions of cellphones per day, allowing it to map people's movements and relationships in detail.

Federal agents are then instructed to "recreate" the investigative trail via parallel construction.

The NSA also spies on influential Muslims to obtain information that could be used to discredit them, such as their use of pornography.

The targets, both domestic and abroad, are not suspected of any crime but hold religious or political views deemed "radical" by the NSA.

The newspaper said it had examined documents including emails, text messages, and online accounts that support the claim. Despite White House claims that these programs have congressional oversight, many members of Congress were unaware of the existence of these NSA programs or the secret interpretation of the Patriot Act, and have consistently been denied access to basic information about them.

The NSA has "generally disregarded the special rules for disseminating United States person information" by illegally sharing its intercepts with other law enforcement agencies.

Legal opinions on the NSA's bulk collection program have differed. In mid-December , U. District Judge Richard Leon ruled that the "almost-Orwellian" program likely violates the Constitution, and wrote, "I cannot imagine a more 'indiscriminate' and 'arbitrary invasion' than this systematic and high-tech collection and retention of personal data on virtually every single citizen for purposes of querying and analyzing it without prior judicial approval.

Surely, such a program infringes on 'that degree of privacy' that the Founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment.

Indeed, I have little doubt that the author of our Constitution, James Madison , who cautioned us to beware 'the abridgement of freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments by those in power,' would be aghast.

Later that month, U. District Judge William Pauley ruled that the NSA's collection of telephone records is legal and valuable in the fight against terrorism.

Not wittingly. There are cases where they could inadvertently perhaps collect, but not wittingly. Clapper, in response to criticism, said, "I responded in what I thought was the most truthful, or least untruthful manner.

NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden additionally revealed the existence of XKeyscore , a top secret NSA program that allows the agency to search vast databases of "the metadata as well as the content of emails and other internet activity, such as browser history," with capability to search by "name, telephone number, IP address, keywords, the language in which the internet activity was conducted or the type of browser used.

Regarding the necessity of these NSA programs, Alexander stated on June 27 that the NSA's bulk phone and Internet intercepts had been instrumental in preventing 54 terrorist "events", including 13 in the US, and in all but one of these cases had provided the initial tip to "unravel the threat stream".

The U. An October United Nations report condemned mass surveillance by the United States and other countries as violating multiple international treaties and conventions that guarantee core privacy rights.

The exploit had been leaked online by a hacking group, The Shadow Brokers, nearly a month prior to the attack. A number of experts have pointed the finger at the NSA's non-disclosure of the underlying vulnerability, and their loss of control over the EternalBlue attack tool that exploited it.

Edward Snowden said that if the NSA had " privately disclosed the flaw used to attack hospitals when they found it, not when they lost it, [the attack] might not have happened".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Armed Forces Security Agency. General Paul M. Nakasone , U. Army , Director George C. Barnes , Deputy Director.

Map of global NSA data collection. ACLU v. NSA Hepting v. NSA Clapper v. Amnesty Klayman v. Obama ACLU v. Clapper Wikimedia v. Main article: Black Chamber.

Further information: Watergate scandal and Church Committee. Main article: Global surveillance disclosures —present. Further information: Mass surveillance in the United States.

Play media. Main article: Data Encryption Standard. Main article: Advanced Encryption Standard. Main article: NSA encryption systems.

Main article: Clipper chip. Main article: Perfect Citizen. Main article: Mass surveillance in the United States. Main article: NSA warrantless surveillance — Further information: Hepting v.

United States portal. United States Cryptologic History. National Security Agency. Archived from the original PDF on March 22, Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved July 6, NSA has evolved from a staff of approximately 7, military and civilian employees housed in in a vacated school in Arlington, VA, into a workforce of more than 30, demographically diverse men and women located at NSA headquarters in Ft.

Meade, MD, in four national Cryptologic Centers, and at sites throughout the world. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, Since the attacks of Sept.

Its budget has roughly doubled. Then NSA wants you. April Retrieved July 1, Spiegel Online. Spiegel Online International.

Retrieved August 29, Spending on Intelligence Agencies". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, Retrieved February 9, The Daily Telegraph , June 30, Archived from the original on January 25, Bugging; Espionage: Hanssen left signs that he told Russia where top-secret overseas eavesdropping devices are placed, officials say".

Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 17, Ross, P. Victoria, British Columbia. Retrieved 23 February Retrieved November 22, Yardley" PDF.

Retrieved May 26, The American black chamber. NSA means lets have some fun without creating any obligations beyond the moment. We do what we do tonight and dont ever have to see each other again.

But without the negative connotation of one-night stand , even if that is what it is. Stands for "National Stalker's Association " A group of people who is very good at finding personal information.

National Security Agency ; the United States cryptologic organization that coordinates and directs highly specialized activities to protect United States information systems and to produce foreign intelligence information.

Abbreviation for "Not Secret Anymore" which can be used in general not to be confused with the abbreviation for the National Security Agency.

Everything I say and do on my laptop , on the internet and worse, in what used to be the comfort, safety and privacy of my own home, is NSA.

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As of about 1, system administrators work for the NSA. Investigations by the House Un-American Activities Committee and a special subcommittee of the United States House Committee on Armed Services revealed severe cases of ignorance in personnel security regulations, prompting the former personnel director and the director of security to step down and leading to the adoption of stricter security practices.

The very same day, an NSA clerk-messenger committed suicide as ongoing investigations disclosed that he had sold secret information to the Soviets on a regular basis.

The reluctance of Congressional houses to look into these affairs had prompted a journalist to write, "If a similar series of tragic blunders occurred in any ordinary agency of Government an aroused public would insist that those responsible be officially censured, demoted, or fired.

Edward Snowden 's leaking of the existence of PRISM in caused the NSA to institute a " two-man rule ", where two system administrators are required to be present when one accesses certain sensitive information.

The NSA conducts polygraph tests of employees. For new employees, the tests are meant to discover enemy spies who are applying to the NSA and to uncover any information that could make an applicant pliant to coercion.

In addition the NSA conducts periodic polygraph investigations in order to find spies and leakers; those who refuse to take them may receive "termination of employment", according to a memorandum from the director of NSA.

There are also "special access examination" polygraphs for employees who wish to work in highly sensitive areas, and those polygraphs cover counterintelligence questions and some questions about behavior.

Between and , of the 20, job applicants who took polygraph tests, 3. In the NSA produced a video explaining its polygraph process. Jeff Stein of The Washington Post said that the video portrays "various applicants, or actors playing them—it's not clear—describing everything bad they had heard about the test, the implication being that none of it is true.

After Edward Snowden revealed his identity in , the NSA began requiring polygraphing of employees once per quarter. The number of exemptions from legal requirements has been criticized.

When in the Congress was hearing a bill giving the director of the NSA the power to fire at will any employee, The Washington Post wrote: "This is the very definition of arbitrariness.

It means that an employee could be discharged and disgraced on the basis of anonymous allegations without the slightest opportunity to defend himself.

When the agency was first established, its headquarters and cryptographic center were in the Naval Security Station in Washington, D.

Army 's cryptographic operations. Construction of additional buildings began after the agency occupied buildings at Fort Meade in the late s, which they soon outgrew.

NSA workers referred to the building as the "Headquarters Building" and since the NSA management occupied the top floor, workers used "Ninth Floor" to refer to their leaders.

Meade , Maryland , although it is separate from other compounds and agencies that are based within this same military installation. The Eastbound exit from the Parkway heading toward Baltimore is open to the public and provides employee access to its main campus and public access to the National Cryptology Museum.

NSA is the largest employer in the state of Maryland, and two-thirds of its personnel work at Fort Meade. The main NSA headquarters and operations building is what James Bamford , author of Body of Secrets , describes as "a modern boxy structure" that appears similar to "any stylish office building.

Capitol "could easily fit inside it four times over. The facility has over watchposts, [] one of them being the visitor control center, a two-story area that serves as the entrance.

The OPS2A building, the tallest building in the NSA complex and the location of much of the agency's operations directorate, is accessible from the visitor center.

Bamford described it as a "dark glass Rubik's Cube ". The name refers to the "red badge" which is worn by someone without a security clearance. The NSA headquarters includes a cafeteria, a credit union, ticket counters for airlines and entertainment, a barbershop, and a bank.

The employees at the NSA headquarters reside in various places in the Baltimore-Washington area , including Annapolis , Baltimore, and Columbia in Maryland and the District of Columbia, including the Georgetown community.

Following a major power outage in , in and in follow-ups through , The Baltimore Sun reported that the NSA was at risk of electrical overload because of insufficient internal electrical infrastructure at Fort Meade to support the amount of equipment being installed.

This problem was apparently recognized in the s but not made a priority, and "now the agency's ability to keep its operations going is threatened.

BGE provided NSA with 65 to 75 megawatts at Fort Meade in , and expected that an increase of 10 to 15 megawatts would be needed later that year.

NCSC was responsible for computer security throughout the federal government. As of , NSA collected intelligence from four geostationary satellites.

NSA had installations in several U. In , to protect its assets and access more electricity, NSA sought to decentralize and expand its existing facilities in Fort Meade and Menwith Hill, [] the latter expansion expected to be completed by The Yakima Herald-Republic cited Bamford, saying that many of NSA's bases for its Echelon program were a legacy system , using outdated, s technology.

A NSA report indicates that the ECC is responsible for the "largest analysis and productivity in Europe" and focuses on various priorities, including Africa, Europe, the Middle East and counterterrorism operations.

Thailand is a "3rd party partner" of the NSA along with nine other nations. It presumably eavesdrops on foreign embassies, governmental communications, and other targets of opportunity.

Its mission was to eavesdrop on the radio traffic of Chinese army and air force units in southern China, especially in and around the city of Kunming in Yunnan Province.

Back in the late s the base consisted only of a small CDAA antenna array that was remote-controlled via satellite from the NSA listening post at Kunia, Hawaii , and a small force of civilian contractors from Bendix Field Engineering Corp.

The base apparently fell into disrepair in the s as China and Vietnam became more friendly towards the US, and by archived satellite imagery showed that the PUSHER CDAA antenna had been torn down, perhaps indicating that the base had been closed.

It is likely that the NSA presence at Khon Kaen is relatively small, and that most of the work is done by civilian contractors. NSA has been involved in debates about public policy, both indirectly as a behind-the-scenes adviser to other departments, and directly during and after Vice Admiral Bobby Ray Inman 's directorship.

NSA was a major player in the debates of the s regarding the export of cryptography in the United States.

Restrictions on export were reduced but not eliminated in Its secure government communications work has involved the NSA in numerous technology areas, including the design of specialized communications hardware and software, production of dedicated semiconductors at the Ft.

Meade chip fabrication plant , and advanced cryptography research. For 50 years, NSA designed and built most of its computer equipment in-house, but from the s until about when the U.

Congress curtailed the practice , the agency contracted with the private sector in the fields of research and equipment.

NSA was embroiled in some minor controversy concerning its involvement in the creation of the Data Encryption Standard DES , a standard and public block cipher algorithm used by the U.

There was suspicion that these changes had weakened the algorithm sufficiently to enable the agency to eavesdrop if required, including speculation that a critical component—the so-called S-boxes —had been altered to insert a " backdoor " and that the reduction in key length might have made it feasible for NSA to discover DES keys using massive computing power.

It has since been observed that the S-boxes in DES are particularly resilient against differential cryptanalysis , a technique which was not publicly discovered until the late s but known to the IBM DES team.

This small modification was suggested by NSA two years later, with no justification other than the fact that it provides additional security.

An attack for SHA-0 that does not apply to the revised algorithm was indeed found between and by academic cryptographers.

Because of weaknesses and key length restrictions in SHA-1, NIST deprecates its use for digital signatures , and approves only the newer SHA-2 algorithms for such applications from on.

A new hash standard, SHA-3 , has recently been selected through the competition concluded October 2, with the selection of Keccak as the algorithm.

The process to select SHA-3 was similar to the one held in choosing the AES, but some doubts have been cast over it, [] [] since fundamental modifications have been made to Keccak in order to turn it into a standard.

National Institute of Standards and Technology 's guidelines. This led to speculation of a backdoor which would allow NSA access to data encrypted by systems using that pseudorandom number generator PRNG.

This is now deemed to be plausible based on the fact that output of next iterations of PRNG can provably be determined if relation between two internal Elliptic Curve points is known.

Because of concerns that widespread use of strong cryptography would hamper government use of wiretaps , NSA proposed the concept of key escrow in and introduced the Clipper chip that would offer stronger protection than DES but would allow access to encrypted data by authorized law enforcement officials.

NSA has the ability to file for a patent from the U. Patent and Trademark Office under gag order. Unlike normal patents, these are not revealed to the public and do not expire.

However, if the Patent Office receives an application for an identical patent from a third party, they will reveal NSA's patent and officially grant it to NSA for the full term on that date.

One of NSA's published patents describes a method of geographically locating an individual computer site in an Internet-like network, based on the latency of multiple network connections.

The heraldic insignia of NSA consists of an eagle inside a circle, grasping a key in its talons. Carter USA ordered the creation of a device to represent the agency.

Crews associated with NSA missions have been involved in a number of dangerous and deadly situations. A tradition of declassifying the stories of the fallen was begun in In the United States, at least since , [] there has been legal controversy over what signal intelligence can be used for and how much freedom the National Security Agency has to use signal intelligence.

The government was not analyzing the phone records as of early Bush , the National Security Agency, in an attempt to thwart terrorism, had been tapping phone calls made to persons outside the country, without obtaining warrants from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court , a secret court created for that purpose under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA.

One such surveillance program, authorized by the U. Army th Military Intelligence Brigade. NSA relayed telephone including cell phone conversations obtained from ground, airborne, and satellite monitoring stations to various U.

Conversations of citizens of the U. Proponents of the surveillance program claim that the President has executive authority to order such action, arguing that laws such as FISA are overridden by the President's Constitutional powers.

Rumsfeld deprecates this view. NSA , U. Bush , against the George W. Bush Presidency. In that case the agency has to ask the telecom companies for the record, which will only be kept for six months.

NSA was reported in to use its computing capability to analyze "transactional" data that it regularly acquires from other government agencies, which gather it under their own jurisdictional authorities.

As part of this effort, NSA now monitors huge volumes of records of domestic email data, web addresses from Internet searches, bank transfers, credit-card transactions, travel records, and telephone data, according to current and former intelligence officials interviewed by The Wall Street Journal.

The sender, recipient, and subject line of emails can be included, but the content of the messages or of phone calls are not.

A advisory group for the Obama administration, seeking to reform NSA spying programs following the revelations of documents released by Edward J.

Clarke was a group member and stated on April 11, that NSA had no advance knowledge of Heartbleed. Law enforcement agents were directed to conceal how the investigations began and recreate an apparently legal investigative trail by re-obtaining the same evidence by other means.

The Justice Department then took action to correct the issues and bring the program into compliance with existing laws.

Polls conducted in June found divided results among Americans regarding NSA's secret data collection. On April 25, , the NSA obtained a court order requiring Verizon 's Business Network Services to provide metadata on all calls in its system to the NSA "on an ongoing daily basis" for a three-month period, as reported by The Guardian on June 6, This information includes "the numbers of both parties on a call The order relies on the so-called "business records" provision of the Patriot Act.

In August , following the Snowden leaks, new details about the NSA's data mining activity were revealed. Reportedly, the majority of emails into or out of the United States are captured at "selected communications links" and automatically analyzed for keywords or other "selectors".

Emails that do not match are deleted. The utility of such a massive metadata collection in preventing terrorist attacks is disputed. Many studies reveal the dragnet like system to be ineffective.

One such report, released by the New America Foundation concluded that after an analysis of terrorism cases, the NSA "had no discernible impact on preventing acts of terrorism.

Defenders of the program said that while metadata alone cannot provide all the information necessary to prevent an attack, it assures the ability to "connect the dots" [] between suspect foreign numbers and domestic numbers with a speed only the NSA's software is capable of.

One benefit of this is quickly being able to determine the difference between suspicious activity and real threats. Alexander mentioned at the annual Cybersecurity Summit in , that metadata analysis of domestic phone call records after the Boston Marathon bombing helped determine that rumors of a follow-up attack in New York were baseless.

In addition to doubts about its effectiveness, many people argue that the collection of metadata is an unconstitutional invasion of privacy.

As of [update] , the collection process remains legal and grounded in the ruling from Smith v. Maryland A prominent opponent of the data collection and its legality is U.

District Judge Richard J. Leon , who issued a report in [] in which he stated: "I cannot imagine a more 'indiscriminate' and 'arbitrary invasion' than this systematic and high tech collection and retention of personal data on virtually every single citizen for purposes of querying and analyzing it without prior judicial approval Surely, such a program infringes on 'that degree of privacy' that the founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment".

This ruling "is the first time a higher-level court in the regular judicial system has reviewed the N.

Under the Upstream collection program, the NSA paid telecommunications companies hundreds of millions of dollars in order to collect data from them.

In a declassified document it was revealed that 17, phone lines were on an improperly permitted "alert list" from to in breach of compliance, which tagged these phone lines for daily monitoring.

The NSA tracks the locations of hundreds of millions of cellphones per day, allowing it to map people's movements and relationships in detail.

Federal agents are then instructed to "recreate" the investigative trail via parallel construction. The NSA also spies on influential Muslims to obtain information that could be used to discredit them, such as their use of pornography.

The targets, both domestic and abroad, are not suspected of any crime but hold religious or political views deemed "radical" by the NSA.

The newspaper said it had examined documents including emails, text messages, and online accounts that support the claim. Despite White House claims that these programs have congressional oversight, many members of Congress were unaware of the existence of these NSA programs or the secret interpretation of the Patriot Act, and have consistently been denied access to basic information about them.

The NSA has "generally disregarded the special rules for disseminating United States person information" by illegally sharing its intercepts with other law enforcement agencies.

Legal opinions on the NSA's bulk collection program have differed. In mid-December , U. District Judge Richard Leon ruled that the "almost-Orwellian" program likely violates the Constitution, and wrote, "I cannot imagine a more 'indiscriminate' and 'arbitrary invasion' than this systematic and high-tech collection and retention of personal data on virtually every single citizen for purposes of querying and analyzing it without prior judicial approval.

Surely, such a program infringes on 'that degree of privacy' that the Founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment. Indeed, I have little doubt that the author of our Constitution, James Madison , who cautioned us to beware 'the abridgement of freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments by those in power,' would be aghast.

Later that month, U. District Judge William Pauley ruled that the NSA's collection of telephone records is legal and valuable in the fight against terrorism.

Not wittingly. There are cases where they could inadvertently perhaps collect, but not wittingly. Clapper, in response to criticism, said, "I responded in what I thought was the most truthful, or least untruthful manner.

NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden additionally revealed the existence of XKeyscore , a top secret NSA program that allows the agency to search vast databases of "the metadata as well as the content of emails and other internet activity, such as browser history," with capability to search by "name, telephone number, IP address, keywords, the language in which the internet activity was conducted or the type of browser used.

Regarding the necessity of these NSA programs, Alexander stated on June 27 that the NSA's bulk phone and Internet intercepts had been instrumental in preventing 54 terrorist "events", including 13 in the US, and in all but one of these cases had provided the initial tip to "unravel the threat stream".

The U. An October United Nations report condemned mass surveillance by the United States and other countries as violating multiple international treaties and conventions that guarantee core privacy rights.

The exploit had been leaked online by a hacking group, The Shadow Brokers, nearly a month prior to the attack. A number of experts have pointed the finger at the NSA's non-disclosure of the underlying vulnerability, and their loss of control over the EternalBlue attack tool that exploited it.

Edward Snowden said that if the NSA had " privately disclosed the flaw used to attack hospitals when they found it, not when they lost it, [the attack] might not have happened".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Armed Forces Security Agency. General Paul M. Nakasone , U. Army , Director George C. Barnes , Deputy Director.

Map of global NSA data collection. ACLU v. NSA Hepting v. NSA Clapper v. Amnesty Klayman v. Obama ACLU v. Clapper Wikimedia v.

Main article: Black Chamber. Further information: Watergate scandal and Church Committee. Main article: Global surveillance disclosures —present.

Further information: Mass surveillance in the United States. Play media. Main article: Data Encryption Standard. Main article: Advanced Encryption Standard.

Main article: NSA encryption systems. Main article: Clipper chip. Main article: Perfect Citizen. Main article: Mass surveillance in the United States.

Main article: NSA warrantless surveillance — Further information: Hepting v. United States portal. United States Cryptologic History. National Security Agency.

Archived from the original PDF on March 22, Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved July 6, NSA has evolved from a staff of approximately 7, military and civilian employees housed in in a vacated school in Arlington, VA, into a workforce of more than 30, demographically diverse men and women located at NSA headquarters in Ft.

Meade, MD, in four national Cryptologic Centers, and at sites throughout the world. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, Since the attacks of Sept.

Its budget has roughly doubled. Then NSA wants you. April Retrieved July 1, Spiegel Online. Spiegel Online International.

Retrieved August 29, Spending on Intelligence Agencies". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, Retrieved February 9, The Daily Telegraph , June 30, Archived from the original on January 25, Bugging; Espionage: Hanssen left signs that he told Russia where top-secret overseas eavesdropping devices are placed, officials say".

Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 17, Ross, P. Victoria, British Columbia. Retrieved 23 February Retrieved November 22, Yardley" PDF.

Retrieved May 26, The American black chamber. Retrieved November 9, Spies, wiretaps, and secret operations: An encyclopedia of American espionage.

United States Army. Retrieved August 11, Archived from the original PDF on September 18, Retrieved July 2, October 24, Archived from the original PDF on August 21, July [].

A History of U. Communications Security; the David G. Boak Lectures, Vol. George G. Meade, MD: U. Retrieved New York: Disinformation Company Ltd.

Retrieved March 14, September 25, National Security Archive. Retrieved August 2, Public Affairs Television. Retrieved June 28, April 23, Archived from the original PDF on September 22, April 26, Archived from the original PDF on May 21, Hersh February 22, Retrieved January 12, The Los Angeles Times.

He was, by implication, revealing that NSA had broken the Libyan code. Retrieved November 3, The Baltimore Sun. Tribune Company.

Retrieved June 11, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Random Curves: Journeys of a Mathematician. The Daily Telegraph.

Retrieved 12 April Baltimore Sun. Tribune Company Chicago, IL. Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved March 7, The privacy protections offered by ThinThread were also abandoned in the post—September 11 push by the president for a faster response to terrorism.

Retrieved 4 September Retrieved September 11, April 22, Archived from the original on Retrieved July 4, Craig Potton Publishing.

Yakima Herald-Republic. Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved June 15, New Statesman via duncancampbell.

Archived from the original PDF on June 14, Retrieved June 19, Retrieved June 7, July Nicky Hager. The Huffington Post.

Retrieved May 6, Retrieved June 1, Retrieved July 15, Collect it all, tag it, store it. And whatever it is you want, you go searching for it.

The Guardian. Retrieved July 16, Retrieved October 18, Der Spiegel in German. Retrieved June 29, Retrieved August 25, The New York Times Bits blog.

November 15, Retrieved October 9, Appelbaum; A. Gibson; J. Goetz; V. Kabisch; L. Kampf; L. Ryge July 3, Norddeutscher Rundfunk.

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Internet companies in broad secret program". Retrieved June 6, July 12, Retrieved September 7, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved October 7, ".

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August 13, Grady June 10, Archived from the original on June 15, National Security Agency plans major reorganization.

The Washington Post , Feb Archived from the original PDF on January 18, Damn that was a steezy ass kickflip son! NSA means lets have some fun without creating any obligations beyond the moment.

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Stands for "National Stalker's Association " A group of people who is very good at finding personal information. National Security Agency ; the United States cryptologic organization that coordinates and directs highly specialized activities to protect United States information systems and to produce foreign intelligence information.

Abbreviation for "Not Secret Anymore" which can be used in general not to be confused with the abbreviation for the National Security Agency.

Everything I say and do on my laptop , on the internet and worse, in what used to be the comfort, safety and privacy of my own home, is NSA.

Now my whole life and everything I once considered personal and private including: what I look like when I wake up; when I sleep ; how I look naked; how often I fart; my whole life story; what I say to a confidant like my mother is all NSA since those guys loaded spyware on my laptop, ironically one of whom repeatedly told me I couldn't keep a secret.

Antonyms: be faithful, be loyal, defend, protect, support. Eee-o eleven

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NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things'

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